Performative Conception of Race

Performativity is a concept that seeks to define and maintain identity. It reverses the idea that identity is the source of secondary actions like speech and gestures. As such, identity is caused by performative actions, behaviors, and gestures (Pfeifle, 2014). The article, ‘the fifth black woman,’ focuses on intersectionality and asserts that its future is promising. Intersectionality has laid a basis for the construction of new theories of discrimination such as identity performance. It argues that an individual’s experiences with discrimination are not only based on status identity, but also on the choices made on how to present the difference thereby forming the basis for performance identity. An analogy to the issue is how a person makes choices on the type of dress, accent, and hair style to present their gender, despite the constraints of the society and other pressures. They are all choices about performance.

Intersectionality advocates for the legal recognition of particular status identities. The general understanding is that specific social groups, like black people, have multiple status identities like black lesbians, black heterosexual women, and black heterosexual men (Gulati & Carbado, 2001). The various social identity holders in a social group are situated differently on the level of, and form of discrimination they face. According to intersectionality, the determination of whether an individual is a victim of discrimination should be an obligation of the courts to consider specific status identity occupied by the person. It is important for courts to pay attention to the specific status identity of a plaintiff for it to discover whether the plaintiff’s discrimination is rooted from an intra-group difference. Courts have a tendency of conceptualizing racial discrimination as an inter-group difference such as that of whites and Asian Americans. In such a case, an Asian American plaintiff will have to demonstrate that she received different treatment to a non-Asian American in a similar situation. It would be likely that the plaintiff is not subject to the type of discrimination displayed.

Discrimination is based on both inter-group and intra-group differences. Intra-group differences have a basis on identity performance as well as identity status. In a case where an organization prefers Asian American women to Asian American men, the preferences may be narrowed to quiet and passive Asian American women to those Asian American women who fail to show the characteristics.

Regarding performative conception of race, the discussion is based on a hypothetical case of Mary. She is a black woman who works in an elite corporate firm with eighty attorneys and twenty among them are partners. Among the partners, only two are black, and both are men. The organization has three female partners who are all white, and there are no Asian American, Native American, or Latino partners. As such, the firm is diverse at the associate level having fifteen female associates and among them is Mary. Three including Mary are black, two are Asian American, and one is Latina. The other three are white. Mary, alongside other five associates, is up for partnership, and her yearly reviews are strong. She has been praised for her contribution to the firm and told to be on track, but being track was not a guarantee for making partnership. The associate committee recommended that the organization promotes all the six associates, but the partners voted for only four; one black man, one Asian American man, one white man, and one white woman. Mary was not considered for a partnership that made her sue the firm for unfair treatment discrimination (Gulati & Carbado, 2001).

The main aspects pointed out by Mary in her case are racial discrimination, sex discrimination, and race and sex discrimination. Mary lacked evidence used against her by the employer and could not identify any specific information used against her. The court ruled for the firm and rejected all her claims. For race discrimination, there was no evidence of intentional discrimination against her or that the firm dislikes blacks since it considered one African-American. The organization has a history of promoting two African-Americans in the past and that both partners took part in the determination of partners and never cited any form of discriminatory approach to the issue. Thus, it would be challenging to associate the firm with discrimination considering that blacks have been promoted in the past. A similar argument was used on the gender-based discrimination claim where the court dismissed it.

The issue of cognizability was applied to explain that while Mary could argue that the organization discriminated against her by race and sex, she may not argue it based on the two aspects. The court explained that legislative history does not have any classification of ‘black women’ as having greater standing than black male. As such, the creation of new classes of protected minorities does not apply in the court case as fronted by Mary. Black male and white female create a problem for black women who desire to be treated fairly. From the court ruling, it is evident that gender can not modify black’s experiences. Hence, the fact that Mary is a female does not make her receive special treatment other than other blacks whether male or female.

The court ruling sought to clarify that racism affects men and women in a similar manner and it is about hostility against black people (Gulati & Carbado, 2001). In a case where firm practices intra-racial distinctions, like hiring some black people and not others, the practice is not racial differences. It appears that Mary’s argument was discriminatory in nature by promoting intra-racial differences. She argued that the firm showed differences between black women and black men by favoring men which are discriminatory in nature. The court intended to conceptualize race without gender specificity and did not view what Mary considered as racial discrimination. If the organization in question promoted one black male, then it was not racially discriminatory.

Regarding Mary’s sex discrimination claim, the court analysis was based on essentialism. Race does not modify women experiences in the context, and the court assumed that an organization that engages in sex discrimination has a negative impact on all women and in a similar way. Thus, issues of intra-gender distinction did not arise in the court. For such differences to arise, the firm may distinguish between black women and white women by favoring the latter in which it would be discriminatory. The court essentialized gender and did not view the preference identified by Mary as gender discrimination. The court could not identify that a sexist firm may promote some women like Whites and not others who are blacks. As such, the experiences of black women are regarded as discriminatory only if they are similar to what other black men or women go through which may be a general view to the issue and beyond redress by the law.

Argument Evaluation Boston

Question
Ephron thinks it would be a good thing if more photographs of death and dying were published by newspapers (paras. 11-13). In a 2-3 page essay, summarize her reasons and evaluate them. Do you agree with Ephron? If so why? Do you disagree? If so, why not? Use specific examples to support your opinion.

There are many reasons that make newspaper editors publish photos of death and to die. Some people advocate for it, and others do not. According to the proponents, the pictures of people dying ought to be published in newspapers because death forms a major part of human life. On the contrary, the opponents argue that death should remain private and not published in newspapers (Anderson & Runciman, 2005). I agree that death and dying photographs should be published in newspapers since they are informative, cautionary, and a modern way of describing an incident.

Ephron thinks that showing photographs of death and dying in a published newspaper is good and gives various reasons as discussed. She explained that she never thought that printing corpses would raise the myriad of problems and the fact that people die her not understand why people avoid it. She thought that all kinds of pictures portrayed would be a good way of informing people of the incident and offer the needed help (Ephron, 171-172). She argued that the pictures deserved to be taken and printed since they are great pictures showing an incident that happened. It was not purposed to disturb readers, but to inform them of what happened in the failed attempt to rescue the two.

I agree with Ephron that pictures of death and dying ought to be published in newspapers and have valid reasons for it. In consideration to the incident that led to the death of the two subjects, the rescuers tried their best and demonstrated bravery in attempting to save the lives of the victims. As such, no blame would be laid on them since they acted promptly, but to no avail. The depiction of such photos provides evidence that action was taken. Additionally, it is possible that if more photographs of death and dying are published in newspapers, millions of people would learn critical lessons from the incidents. For instance, in a case of a car accident, readers of a published newspaper would learn the major causes of accidents and the need to avoid them. The readers would have second thoughts on the roads and drive with caution when they remember of some of the pictures of death and dying they saw in the newspaper from road accidents. According to Ephron, she did not recognize that the pictures would raise all sorts of problems about taste and sensationalism, but the fact is that people die. (Ephron, 113). Death is part of life and should be regarded in dignity, but it does not imply the failure to show it in newspapers.

I believe that photographs of death and dying are appropriate depending on the context and perspective of an issue. In most instances, readers are shown an aftermath of a death process and are left with unanswered questions about what led to the death. Thus, it would be appropriate to show pictures of death in action despite its connection to emotions and feelings. The use of pictures is a good way of depicting some aspects of death that are difficult to explain by words. As the saying goes, ‘a picture is worth a thousand words,’ it would be appropriate to depict death and dying using some photos other than using long emotional texts.

Security planning

What are three areas that security plan should address? Describe each?

The three areas that security planning has to address include the assets needing protection risks facing the assets as well as resources needed for protection. Good are property possessed by an organization, group or individual and must be vulnerable to insecurity. Risks are the potential dangers facing the assets while efforts and resources are the material as well as none material input an organization or an individual allocates to protect the assets of electronic surveillance systems.

What are the difference between a fully functional 13 step systems development life cycle (SDLC) and a fully functional 3 step SDLC?

The main outstanding difference between the two is that a 13 SDLC takes and goes through all steps in system development while reducing the risks in system development. On the other hand, the three steps SDLC suppresses part of stages only to concentrate on main steps. 3step model, therefore, never aim at managing the risks.

Discuss the three critical resources that are linked to business success when focused on business driven technology.

The main IT resources for business success are namely the people, information, and business information technology. Business people referrers to all key players in a business environment like customers, contractors as well as the supplier. Therefore, people explain both the external as well as internal business persons who are owners. The business information refers the useful business data after going through the process of conversion for proposed of making business decisions. On the other hand, information technology includes all tools, techniques as well as applications critical for the business to have smooth operations.

Describe the systems theory model and give one example how it works.

Systems theory model gives a clear total organization analytical background of all its operations. For instance, decision-making system theory model puts emphasis on organization interactions with external stakeholders. It, therefore, provides comprehensiveness of threats and opportunities to the organization giving response strategy to solve the issue.

Discuss some common it metrics for strategic initiatives and how they get measured.

The IT metrics critical to strategic initiatives encompass, supply chain metrics, website metrics, customer relationship metrics, enterprise resource planning metrics as well as business process re-engineering metrics. Website metrics gets measured by abandoned registrations, conversion rates; unique visitors as well as shopping cards. Supply chain management metrics, on the other hand, get measured by back orders, inventory practices, and customer order real cycle. Customer relationship management metrics takes sales metrics, marketing metrics, and service delivery metrics.

How do Ethics apply to Information Technology? Provide two specific examples of information ethics.

Ethics applies to the information technology through utilization of use of informatics while ensuring no harm to others. In information technology, privacy, as well as intellectual property rights, remain key information technology ethics.