Plagiarism sites

Plagiarism and how we can apply math skills in Operation Research IME550

Different scholars have defined plagiarism in many different ways. However, all the scholars agree on one factor that plagiarism is a serious academic offence that attracts the highest penalties and punishment. It involves the theft of another person’s ideas or words, lack of acknowledging the source, poor quotation of sources, as well as presenting the work as own to instructors. Every author’s original work that gets expressed in some way gets considered as intellectual property that is under the protection of the copyright laws of the United States. This offence is serious, and all scholars and learners should be keen on avoiding it by all means. Ways of preventing plagiarism include consultations with the professor or lecturer, adequately planning for a paper or book in advance, acknowledging sources and checking individual papers in plagiarism sites.

Mathematics is an important subject in all disciplines and in pursuing all careers; hence vital to have excellent performance in the subject. However, this is not the case as students always perform poorly and get disadvantaged in many ways. There are various Math study skills that when adopted would result in high grades in Mathematics courses including IME550. The list gets provided below together with the correct approach to problem-solving in Mathematics, studying Math and undertaking Math tests.

Math study skills for better grades entail the on absenteeism to Math classes. It gets attributed to several reasons such as the factor that the instructors cover large Math sections in one class and do Math examples during lessons. Hence, missing a single class would result in losing significantly. The instructors also formulate the end of academic year Math tests using the material covered in class, thus attending every day gives a student an added advantage. Attending all classes together with completing homework in time enhances the learner’s understanding of the course material, concepts, problem-solving technique and formulas. The learner also can identify strengths and weaknesses hence determine where to put more effort and time. Attending classes and doing homework prepares the student adequately for Math tests. Getting assistance on weak areas in Math also improves the understanding of Math concepts and material. A student may request for assistance during lesson time, approaching the instructor during non-class hours, consulting fellow student and discussing in discussion groups.

Problem-solving process is a fundamental technique that needs to get learned, understood and mastered for improving an individual’s grades. The process commences by first reading the question careful and understanding what is needed for the learner by the problem. The next step is formulating a suitable plan for the problem. The developed plan is then carefully implemented to attain the set objectives. Lastly, in the problem-solving skills is the review of one’s work to identify mistakes and errors or addition of omissions.

Studying Math is also crucial for a learner as it assists them to prepare adequately for a Math test. Studying Math may involve doing homework or just going through the course content. It is most effective when undertaken many days prior to the test period.

The approach in Math test is vital in determining a student’s grade. A student should go to the exam room well prepared for the test. After receiving the question paper, the student should read the instructions, identify problems which they would be comfortable understanding and then plan their time appropriately. All the work done should be shown clearly and possibly in a step by step arrangement. Erasing of wrong work should be avoided, and if necessary, a single line is most appropriate. After completing the paper, the student should review all the work done, to ensure that all instructions got followed and also identify mistakes and errors.

Real time project on ETL-Informatica developer in an organization

Iteration 2: Analysis
At this stage, I would have known the culture of the organization and their work environment and would shift my focus to understanding and analyze the different ETL tool components that are used for managing the data within the organization. Through understanding the tools, I would have the capability of knowing how to use them when performing the different tasks as ETL developer. By the end of the second iteration, the business requirement documents are thoroughly reviewed and analyzed for further modifications. The main idea is to be perfect with all the activities that are connected to the previous iteration (K. Ashok, Personal Communication, January 18, 2016).

Planning
In my plan to prepare for the iteration on analysis of the ETL tool components, I had the mandate of getting all the information regarding the selection of the best ETL tooling that would be useful in the execution of my duties in Logic Planet Consulting Services, Inc as an Informatica developer. I planned to meet with the company’s informatics developers that had the knowledge of the ETL tools in a meeting that would take place in one of the halls in the company, and there would be follow-up meetings up to February 01, 2016 when the iteration is expected to end. The developers have the experience in the execution of ETL process, data loading, extraction, workflow management, integration, workflow management and other relevant experience on ETL processes (K. Ashok, Personal Communication, January 18, 2016). I planned to get real-time insight regarding the definition of the characteristics of the ETL tools and the way they have usage in the organization.

In this iteration, the topics that I expected to have coverage included the architecture, the architecture, the router transformations, Informatica power center and qualifier transformations. Among the things that I wanted to be conversant with included the various business components that place the key role in the development of the data warehouse. I planned to make use of this session and make the necessary inquiries of how I would be designing the ETL workflow monitoring that would be taking place in the next iteration. I also planned to take advantage of this session and analyze the requirements for the project at hand. I planned to make the necessary inquiries from the company’s system analyst and the project manager who would help me to have in-depth knowledge concerning the process of reviewing and analyzing the project requirements documentation. That would aid me to get to understand how to develop the project objectives before embarking on the task that has been assigned to me (K. Martial, Personal Communication, January 18, 2016).

Action

On January 18, 2016, I met the company’s ETL developers in the Orange Hall that was being used in conducting such meetings. The aim of the meeting with them was to have a thorough knowledge of the ETL tool components that are having usage in the company in the execution of the ETL processes and tasks. Before the meeting would commence there was the distribution of the program and how it would be conducted including the personnel that would be handling each task of training on the ETL components. The tools that were on the list included the Informatica power centers, the power connect, Power Mart, power exchange, power analysis and the Informatica power quality (M. Nancy, Personal Communication, January 22, 2016). On Monday, January 18, 2016, the training on the tools commenced, and it was the task of the on for the senior developers, Mrs. Nancy who trained on the Informatica power center and Informatica Power Mart. She taught on how to use the tools in processing data, how to create repositories and conversion of the local repository to the global repository.

Mr. Charles taught about the mapping of components on the third day of the first week. The mapping defines the data extraction, transformation and it loading. He also trained on the components of mapping including source definition, target definition, and the transformation logic (ADBIS et al., 2015). The ETL mapping looks as in the following diagram.

Mrs. Hannah also talked about the process of following components: then center power designer, the workflow manager, the workflow monitor and the repository manager before Mr. Rajesh trained in the process of reviewing and analyzing the requirements documentation. I learned about how to use the Informatica power center designer to design the ETL process that is also known as mapping. I also learned how to leverage the power center workflow manager to create the center power objectives including the sessions for each mapping and the workflow start sessions (A. Hannah, Personal Communication, January 25, 2016).

Observation
The intern observed that there had been the development of many ETL tools to simplify the work of the data warehouse developer. I observed that initially the developers had the task of handwriting the SQL code, but the emergence of the data warehouse development tools has helped to developers to only drag and drop items while developing the data warehouse (Wang, 2007). I also observe that the ETL tools that are available in the market have expanded the functionality beyond the data warehouse development and ETL. The ETL tools being used nowadays have extended functionality or data cleansing, profiling, big data processing, enterprise application integration, master data management and data governance (J. Charles, Personal Communication, January 20, 2016). I also observed that the primary function of the ETL and data integration software entails the performance of extraction, loading, and transformation of data. The ETL tools are not enough, and so the enterprises need to have the business intelligence tools for the purpose of analyzing and visualizing the data after the data has been availed to the OLAP cube or the data warehouse.

I observed that the ETL tool is very useful in the process of creating the ETL processing that makes the management of data an easy task. One had to be conversant of the ETL tool’s components if they have to execute their tasks effectively. I observed that there are also so many tools that the Informatica developer needs to learn in light of the data transformation, data loading, and data extraction, and that is the way to apply those tools. I observed that the trainers in this iteration had a thorough knowledge and experience in the way to carry out all the functions of the ETL tool and the way they structured the analysis session contributed to making it successful. I also observed that the analysis and review of the requirements documentations help in the understanding of the project at hand and the issues that require resolution (K. Ashok, Personal Communication, January 28, 2016).

Reflection
The knowledge of the ETL tools and the ETL tool components being used in the execution of the required tasks is very paramount to the success of the Informatica developer. The Informatica developer has the mandate of extracting data from various sources such as the databases, systems, and applications after which he/she also transform it and then load it into another database, data mart or data warehouse before analyzing it (Albrecht & Naumann, 2008). The process cannot take place manually but through the ETL tool. The iteration helped to be well informed regarding these tasks through the use of the ETL tool. The trainers helped me have a real-time knowledge and experience regarding the execution of the ETL process using the various ETL tool components. It helped me to meet all my objectives for this session except for a few. The company leveraged only the trainers that were well-versed with the knowledge on the ETL tool and processes, and that are the reason the iteration had accomplishment with less difficulty (J. Charles, Personal Communication, January 29, 2016).

The iteration inculcated in me the knowledge concerning the ETL processes, but since there were no real-time examples to work on, I could not acquire the practical experience that I needed to have from this session. I suggest that the company should have in place the real-time example of tasks on which the intern should work on so as to enhance his/her understanding when they are being trained in the execution of their tasks. The other things that did not do well in this session are that the trainers did not handle the other ETL tools because they thought that as an ETL Informatica developer I only needed to have knowledge of the ETL tool. I suggest that the company have the inclusion of the other ETL tools in the training so that the intern can have full knowledge and experience of the other tools as well.

Iteration 3: Design
In the third iteration, I would start the process of creating the ETL application workflows and reduce errors day by day while working. I would design the different mappings and sessions that I should be performing in the organization (K. Ashok, Personal Communication, February 02, 2016). I would be ensuring that I have the capability of completing all the tasks that I am assigned to by the team leader within the required time frame. I would prepare myself for tackling any tasks that are in my line of duty with the help of the supervisor that would be assigned to me throughout this iteration.

Planning
My plan for the design of the ETL workflows entailed meeting with the company’s ETL Informatica developers and the project manager in a brainstorming session who would help me with the knowledge on how to conduct the task at hand. The brainstorming meeting would take place in the brainstorming room, and it would run for two days beginning on February 02, 2016 to February 03, 2016. The resource person has a through training, experience and skills in the creation of ETL processes and their experience would be an advantage to me as a young ETL Informatica developer. I planned to use the session and prepare adequately for the design task at hand so as to accomplish it with less difficult. I planned to have a thorough knowledge of the source-ETL design considerations including populating the calendar data via the calendar population scripts, and populating the tables in the right order.

The brainstorming session would help me understand how to go in accomplishing my tasks such as the configuration of the data population building blocks for the purpose of delivering the data acquisition services effectively. I planned to understand and execute the communication model using the architecture that best meets the company’s business needs. I also planned to understand and carry out the creation of the source to the destination documents for the source ETL. I planned to design effectively the plan that would be helpful in rectifying the source ETL quality problems regarding data. I also planned to design the source ETL jobs control as well as the ETL workflow using the tips provided in the brainstorming session. I also planned to handle the task of designing the ETL exceptional handling in an effective way as thought in the brainstorming session. The last thing that I wanted to do in this session was the writing of the source-ETL that can load efficiently.

Action
I had a brainstorming session with the company’s project manager as well as the ETL developers in the company’s brainstorming hall, and there was a great share of ideas on how to structure the design phase and the activities I was to carry. The experts also assigned me one of the junior developers to help me with any difficult task that I may encounter during the execution of my duties so that I would accomplish the tasks required with much ease. I learned many things from the brainstorming session, and it gave birth to the plan of the design phase that I was to execute. I learned and implemented the population of the calendar data using the population scripts that are in provision with the data communication model (J. Seth, Personal Communication, February 05, 2016). I populated the tables beginning with lookup tables, reference tables, and lastly the base tables. The ETL first extracts the data from various sources, assures the quality of that data, cleanses it, and then makes it consistent across all the original sources.

After the process of cleansing the data, I had to populate the physical objects with the cleansed data so that the report writers, the dashboards, the query tools and so on can get access to the data. I performed the sourcing, the movement, the transformation and the data loading activities which are the fundamental services for constructing data acquisition. Before I could begin building the extract systems, I had to come up with a logical data interface document for mapping the correlation between the original fields and the target fields in the tables (K. Martial, Personal Communication, February 10, 2016). I designed a plan for dealing with the data quality issues to make sure there are data validity, data accuracy, data consistency, data latency, and data reasoning. I then designed the source ETL jobs control using the tips gained from the brainstorming session such as the use of a common structure for all jobs, maximizing parallelism execution of jobs, using a one-to-one mapping technique from the source to destination among other tips.

Observation
The observation that I made from the design iteration are twofold; that is, the observations regarding the brainstorming session and the techniques of designing and executing the ETL processes. I observed that brainstorming was used experts as a method for generating ideas and solving problems (A. Hannah, Personal Communication, February 01, 2016).. I observed that many brainstorming sessions were flawed due to the lack of clear goals and plan for the same. I observed that the process of design the ETL processes was tedious, and I had to work for more time including the extension in the office to make sure that I completed each day’s tasks and plan for the subsequent tasks. The use of ETL in the Oracle communication data model played a big role in the warehouse environment. I observed that there were three layers in the Oracle Communication Data Model that the ETL tool populates including the staging, the access, and the foundation layer. The diagram below illustrates the flow diagram of ETL process.

I observed that there were two types ETL used for populating the communication model including the source ETL and the intra-ETL (Ankorion, 2005). The source ETL is useful in populating the staging layer as well as the foundation layer of the data communication model with data from the creating system. On the other hand, the intra-ETL is useful in populating the access layer with the data from the foundation layer. The access layer includes the aggregate tables, the OLAP cubes, the derived tables, the data mining models and the materialized views (K. Martial, Personal Communication, February 13, 2016). I observed that the design of the ETL process entailed the design of the source ETL as well as the intra-ETL. The design entailed the creation of a source of the target mapping document, the design of a plan that would have usage in the rectification of data quality problems, designing for exceptional handling, the design of ETL jobs control and control among others.

Reflection
The iteration on designing was very helpful to me as a young ETL Informatica developer as I had to learn many things that I did not know before. I came to understand about the types of ETL including the source ETL and the intra-ETL including the design of both of them. The brainstorming session gave me a plethora of knowledge and experience on how to carry out the design of these two types of ETL processes. I learned how to design for the ETL workflow as well as the jobs control. It also helped me understand the process of making a design that can be helpful in handling exceptions and resolving the data quality problems. The tasks gave me a real-time experience on the design of the ETL processes because I had to work on the actual systems as shown by the developers in the previous meetings.

I made sure that I load data efficiently while developing the mapping scripts and loading the data into the various layer of the data communication model. That was because data had to be gotten into the warehouse in an expedient manner as much as possible. However, despite most of the things going on seamlessly as anticipated, I was assigned less time to work on the project of designing for ETL and that made me work for extra hours so to complete the tasks for each day. The supervisor assigned to me was also not available most of the time. My suggestion is that the company should dedicate enough time to every activity bearing in mind that the intern is not well versed in most of the technical activities. The assigned supervisors should also be available all the time for consultation.

Iteration 4: Implementation
Implementation would be the second last iteration. At this stage, the code is implemented. I would review the code and remove errors (K. Ashok, Personal Communication, March 02, 2016). At this stage, I would also study the ETL workflow. I would first put the focus on the extraction, and then get to understand data transformation and how the data are to be loaded. Since I am an intern, I would not be allowed to perform a complex task; hence, most of the time I would learn through observation.

Planning
The plan that then insert had regarding this iteration on implementation included the resolution of any issues that were might have come during the previous execution of designing the ETL processes and loading the data from the original sources to the destinations. I planned to review the data again in every single step to make sure that the data in the original sources as well as the target database is clean minus any errors. I planned to review the ETL workflow with the help of other ETL Informatica developers to make sure that the known business rules had the right application to make the data consistent. The introduction of errors into the data makes the data lack the required quality, so the plan I had was to make sure that I would thoroughly examine the data to eliminate the data quality issues if any. There are tasks that I would not have an active involvement and so in those areas, I planned to observe keenly and make notes as appropriate.

I also planned to study the ETL workflow, whereby I would first put the focus on the extraction before getting to understand data transformation and how the data are to be loaded. The review of the workflow would entail reviewing the sessions and the way the monitoring of the workflow is taking place and that would provide me with more knowledge and experience as a young ETL Informatica developer. I planned to view the session as well as the workflow and session states; I would review the fetching of session logs from the repository, and the management of the center power repository. I planned to review if relevant data is having extraction, how the transformation of data is taking place including the building of keys, the cleansing of data and the correctness of the format. In the loading of data, I would examine how the loading onto the data warehouse takes place and the building of aggregates.

Action
On an actual day, that is March 02, 2016 when the implementation was to take place; I had a meeting with the company ETL Informatica developer and the system administrator in the system administrator’s office where also the servers were housed. The aim of this meeting was to remove any errors introduced in the data while I was carrying out my tasks in the previous iteration and also review the workflow process for the purpose of optimizing them. We began by examining the quality of the data by addressing the data quality issues to make sure that the data was valid, consistent among all the original data sources, complete, and accurate. The examination of the data validity involved examining the content and sufficiency of the data to ensure that it met the expectations (K. Martial, Personal Communication, March 03, 2016). The examination of data accuracy involved reviewing the correctness of the addresses and the standards that had a definition by the company.

Checking errors that affected data completeness entailed reviewing if all the required data was there and updating the database in case there was a lack of all the data. In the examination of errors that pertained to data consistency, we applied the various rules for eliminating inconsistency in the data to make sure that the data was consistent with all the sources. We also examined the data reasoning whereby we examined had to determine if the data made sense from the business perspective and if it was possible to combine the data the way and the end users would expect. I performed most of the tasks regarding the checking of errors in the data as I consulted with the resource persons with whom I was working. The next task included the review of the workflow so as to optimize the process as desired. The ETL flow that we examined looks as in the diagram below whereby most of the work was done by the developer.

Observation
From the implementation phase, I made several observations in light of checking the errors and reviewing the ETL workflow. I observed that data is very imperative to any organizational, and it should be carefully handled so as to make sure that it remains consistent and without any errors. Any errors in the data or ETL process can make some of the operations on the same not be possible. The examination of the errors in the various sources involved examining the data quality issues to make sure that the data was accurate, valid, had latency, was complete and that it was relevant to the business (J. Seth, Personal Communication, March 10, 2016). I also observed that if the data had to be free of any errors, it had to be extracted, transformed and loaded in the right manner; and it also had to conform to the laid down rules and standards. I observed that the data management was the task carried out by as few people as possible because the usage of many people would introduce many errors and inconsistencies that may prove to be expensive while eliminating them.

I observed that the system administrator and then Senior ETL Informatica developer underwent training from time to time so as to make sure that they gained the required knowledge and skills to execute their tasks effectively as they were obliged with the company’s data stewardship. I observed that any mistake in the data management was a punishable offense and for that reason the data stewards did not allow me to carry out critical tasks on the data lest I introduce other issues. For that purpose, I had to watch the way they performed most of the tasks, and so lacked the real-time experience that would be helpful in the future as an Informatica developer. I also observed that the knowledge on the ETL workflow is crucial for the ETL Informatica developer because it helps them understand how to go about in making the process effective and efficient (M. Nancy, Personal Communication, March 12, 2016).

Reflection
The iteration went on well, and most of the activities that took place were impressive. I gained much knowledge and experience from the same and came to appreciate the need for having Informatica developers in organizations. I also came to appreciate my career as I observed that much would be required of me while I would be executing my duties in any organization in which I would be working as an ETL developer in the future. During this iteration, the supervisors availed themselves throughout the iteration due to the criticality of the data with which we were dealing. They explained to me all the steps that they leveraged especially in those tasks that I did not active involvement. They also gave me the chance of asking any queries that I had, particularly the thing that I could not easily comprehend and any other concerns that I had from the previous iterations.

The iteration had me involved in most of the basic tasks that did not entail the critical functions because of the sensitivity of the data with which we were dealing. I felt that I did not have the chance of learning many essential activities due to the lack of the involvement on those tasks. I would suggest that the company involve the intern in such critical activities because that would create an avenue for gaining vital experience that would make them effective when they would be handling their daily tasks in the future. The company also had the training program for only the system administrator and the ETL Informatica developer and I can suggest that they involve other staffs such as the network administrator, otherwise the security and management of the data are the responsibility of everybody.

Iteration 5: Deployment
Deployment is the last iteration. During this period, the final project is delivered to the end user. In the last days of the iteration, I would get In Touch with my director to get feedback on my performance during the weeks that I have been in the organization. Once I knew my performance rating from the team manager, I would work out on my weaknesses to improve my knowledge and understanding (M. Nancy, Personal Communication, March 16, 2016). I would deploy through performing the different activities that I have learned in the organization.

Planning
I planned to meet the team manager and my supervisors in the Orange Hall so that they would evaluate my activities in the organization and that would be helpful in knowing the areas of my weaknesses and my strengths. The meeting would take place for three days from March 16, 2016, to March 18, 2016, so as address all the areas of my learning experience in the company. I planned to use the complements and any criticism that I would receive forms these staffs and work on my weaknesses effectively so that I would complete my internship in the company well minus any regrets. I planned to solicit the help of the director and the internship coordinator to help me understand how I would work on my weakness so that I make sure I gain maximally from the internship in Logic Planet Consulting Services, Inc.

I then planned to request the Senior ETL Informatica developer to allow work on my weakness by having involvement in the actual ETL processes in the organization. I also planned to interview the various ETL developers in the organization so that they would help me understand how to work on my weaknesses effectively and have the required competency as an ETL Informatica developer. I also planned to carry out a search on the Web and find the commonly asked questions regarding the ETL development to see if I can respond to them effectively and note the areas that I cannot perform well. I would then request the company’s ETL Informatica developers to help me addressing those challenges and by so doing I would have in-depth experience in entirely every task.

Action
I requested the ETL Informatica developer team manager and all my supervisors in the Orange Hall to have a meeting with him so that he helped to analyze my work that I performed in the organization during my internship. Fortunately, the team manager had been recording everything that I did including those that I did well and those that I did not do well as expected. He highlighted many of the areas that I performed well and the areas that did not perform well. The supervisors also stood one by one and highlighted the areas that they thought I did not perform well while they were working with me. After that, I then met the intern’s coordinator and the director and asked if there was any way I would improve on my weaknesses since there were remaining ten days to complete my internship in the company.

The director gave me room to revise on my skills and experience after which I then requested the Senior ETL Informatica developer to allow me to work on the real-time ETL processes so as to improve on those areas in which I did not perform well. The developer also helped me understand how to go in improving on the weaknesses by telling me what should have been done. The knowledge from that developer was substantial as I learned what to do and how to do it better and that made me have less difficulty in executing the duties. I also conducted a search on the Web and then interacted with other developers in the company so that they responded well to the concerns that I had. I made sure that I asked all questions I had and received answers as appropriate from the developer.

Observation
I observed the evaluation of one’s actions is of vital importance and that it is a must while one is doing and action research. The evaluation resulted in the both positive and negative criticisms of my tasks, and that gave me the knowledge of how skilled I was up to this point in my internship (J. Charles, Personal Communication, March 16, 2016). It gave me the knowledge of the areas that I was to improve, and I improved them accordingly. I observed that the company makes sure that the intern learns all they are supposed to learn and that they acquire all the necessary insight that they are supposed to have (M. Nancy, Personal Communication, March 19, 2016). I also observed that an intern is an indispensable person in any company because they rid off the employees of their tasks at a zero cost. I also observed that the company valued the interns so much and for that reason it made sure that they gained the hands-on experience that would help them execute their duties effectively in the future.

The evaluation made me realize that there were a few areas on which I needed to improve, and so I made the necessary step towards the improvement of those areas. I observed that the other developers also had knowledge and experience in ETL processes that would not be ignored, and I wondered why they did not have inclusion in many of the company’s critical tasks including training of the interns. I observed that these developers were always to be challenged by the interns and for that reason they responded to my queries appropriately (A. Hannah, Personal Communication, March 30, 2016).. I observed that after gaining experience, the data stewards did not supervise me closely because they knew very well that I would less likely repeat the mistakes that I had done earlier.

Reflection
The last iteration in Logic Planet Consulting Services, Inc gave me a good experience working on ETL processes and workflows. The last iteration on deployment is the one that introduced me to the practical experience that I had anticipated having in my internship since I had involvement in the actual tasks without supervision. The lack of supervision gave me the experience of working under minimums supervision but also ensuring I deliver quality results. I also gained the knowledge of time management and project management. The iteration on deployment also gave me a chance of interacting with other company ETL developers and gained some more knowledge that I did not have before. The developers were every willing and eager to address all the concerns that I had, and that gave me the desire to continue learning more the task of ETL Informatica development.

Despite the fact that the Senior ETL Informatica developer allowed me to conduct the actual tasks on the company’s database and servers, the system administrator did not allow me to execute some other tasks that were very basic. I suggest that the data stewards should work in unison as that can allow the interns to have the knowledge and experience that they anticipate having. I also felt that the company should have allowed the intern to carry out the real-time tasks in the previous iterations as was done during this iteration. The company also only evaluated the actions of the intern in the last iteration. I suggest that the company have a plan for assessing the activities of the interns in each and every iteration before they can proceed with the next iteration.

Conclusion
The internship in the Logic Planet Consulting Services, Inc was a captivating one because of the many things that I had to learn in the process and the experience that I gained. The internship began with the orientation into the company and there I came to understand the principles, standards, policies, procedures, rules and regulations by which I needed to abide while executing my duties in the company. These helped me to understand how to work so as to accomplish my internship in the company with much ease. The second iteration also introduced me to the analysis of the different ETL tools and the especially the components of the ETL tool. I learned how to leverage those components and accomplish the ETL process effectively with minimum supervision. I also had the experience of analyzing and reviewing the business requirement documents, and that helped me make a good plan that saw the design phase successful.

In the third iteration that entailed design, I learned the process of creating the ETL application workflows and reduced errors day by day while working. I gained the problem-solving skills in the process. In the fourth iteration, I also learned how to eliminate any errors I the data and make sure that different source of data is consistent. I also had a review of the ETL workflow and learned how to optimize the workflow and data management. The fifth iteration on deployment helped in the assessment of my activities sin the company, and it helped me to learn the things that I did not perform well. I, in turn, got involved in working on the actual activities sin the organization and completed my interaction after meeting all the objectives for my internship in the company.

Diversity in the Workplace

Difference between Diversity and Multiculturalism
When it comes to multiculturalism and diversity, there is always that tendency by most people to use the terms interchangeably, when in fact there are major differences between the two. The difference between people is as diversity, and the differences range from gender, race, sexual orientation, background, socioeconomic status and much more. The human resource management perspective on diversity goes ahead to look at policies set so as to meet compliance standards where we see commissions such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) verse complaints in the area. On the other hand, multiculturalism is much deeper than diversity as it focuses on inclusiveness, understanding as well as respect and further looks at unequal power in society. In the workplace most human resource managers see multiculturalism as not being well defined, places emphasis on gender and ethnicity as well as focusing too much on compliance (Carr-Ruffino, 2008).

Diversity is about otherness between individuals and the purpose of diversity being ensuring that people are treated the same through policies. As much as making everyone get the same treatment it is the right thing to do multiculturalism comes in and looks at a system of advantages as per race, gender as well as sexual; orientation called power and privilege. It through this system that advantages of diversity get identified where a person’s race, a person’s gender as well as individual’s sexual orientation is used in setting societal rules as well as norms. Power and privilege are not something that is easily recognized and as such it is mostly regarded as invisible privilege (Fine, 2012). Some of the privileges include

Privileges that are gender based- This is privilege indicates the advantage that one gender has over the other for instance when there is that assumption that once a female gets married, she will automatically change her last name and take up her husband last name (Fine, 2012).
Privileges that are race oriented- When one race is treated as better than another or regarded greater as this may make the race seen as less get infuriating (Fine, 2012).
Privileges that are social class oriented- This are privileges that only those in a certain social class get for instance the upper class may have advantages in club membership than those in the lower social class (Fine, 2012).
Privileges that are sexually oriented- This privilege is seen mostly when a person of a certain social orientation easily does something that another person of a different social orientation cannot do. For instance, it is easier for heterosexual couples to display affection publicly yet a gay, lesbian and transgendered people couple May not being in a position to do the same without racing eyebrows (Fine, 2012).
The above privileges are indeed invisible as most people focus on what they can see only, and they focus on for instance the color of the skin to determine whether they treat people the same or not. The invisible privileges are often ignored or go unnoticed as most people do not recognize the privileges they receive due to the certain race, a certain gender or even sexual orientation (Fine, 2012).

It is though no recognition of the difference in the society as well as the difference between people that there is the failure to see that people have different needs, assets as well as perspectives. Further power and privilege enable people to know that as much as there has an advantage in one area there is always that other area that their difference may not get appreciated by the same society that accepts the other privileges that they have. For instance, a Caucasian female in America may have race privileges but not gender privileges. Power and privilege importance are as it enables individuals to understand their stereotype as well as systems of advantage thus allowing them to get inclusive with coworkers, employees, and managers (Fine, 2012).

In Human Resource Management it is crucial to combine the understanding of certain systems that enable as well as allow for power and privilege as it is such a system that will allow the understanding and thus eliminate or try to minimize the issues that emerge from our difference in the society (Fine, 2012).

Advantages of diversity in the workplace
One of the best things that an organization can get is a workforce that is diverse where individual have the difference in perspective as this may mean that t6hwe organization profitability levels may go up, and it may also lead to better service offer to its customers. However rather than looking at diversity as a way of attaining numerical goals or just complying with the law, it is best to combine the concept to create a workplace that is much better for everyone in the organization. The following are some of the advantages of diversity in the workplace

Allows better service to customers- It is through diversity that an organization can offer better services to its customers as it will give a broader range of services, such as variety in languages as well as the understanding of the difference in culture (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000)
Allows for better communication- Diversity allows better communication between individuals in the organization allowing saves in time as well as money (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Allow compliance with the law- It is commonly a legal requirement for most governments in the world to treat everyone the same regardless of their race, gender or sexual orientation (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Allow for better ideas and solutions- It from the perspective of diversity that an organization can create ideas and solutions that are better for the benefit of the organization (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
The following are some of the disadvantages of diversity in the workplace

Contributes to discomfort among employees- Many employees feel that some changes are not necessary and may prefer maintaining a status quo and thus resist diversity as it brings them discomfort (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Integration Issues- As much as social integration influence in an organization in a minimal way it still has a negative impact. It is through diversity that formation of cliques, as well as exclusive social groups, takes place, and the problems come in when the organization can no longer control the groups. These uncontrolled cliques further contribute to informal division in the staff thus creating situations where culturally diverse employees avoid exposure to each other during break times as well after work. As much as the scenario seems harmless there is a high chance that it hinders the effectiveness of knowledge sharing, experience, and skills, thus preventing growth and brings ineffectiveness in teams (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Freedom of speech impairment- In the workplace diversity existence creates a barrier in the speech where workers that previously could tell jokes happily are forced to quell their exercise of the First Amendment Rights that they hold riotously all in the name of diversity (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Relationships in the Workplace- Employees tend to feel less important when an organization main focus becomes diversity creation especially if the employees do not represent a typical diverse population that focus on race, sex, age as well as disability. The feeling of undervaluation and unappreciated that is purely by no representation of certain diversity may hinder employee’s productivity (Gilbert & Ivancevich, 2000).
Strategic HRM in the Workplace
Recruitment and Selection
Sometimes organizations do not intend to portray exclusiveness or even discriminate, but it is their practices that are illegal and discriminatory. For instance organizations such as Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regards the publication of a job that description and shows the preference for a company of a person they wish to select and place in the organization as illegal. An organization can get an opportunity to get the person they want and still adhere to the law using methods such as four-fifths rule or 80% rule that are a qualitative method of evaluating discrimination in the practice of selection.

The rule states indicates that a rate of selection that has the race, sex or even ethnic group basis is less than four-fifths of the rate for them group with the highest rate could mean a diverse impact on the selection. Where adverse impact refers to a practice of employment that appears neutral but carries with its discriminatory effect on a group whose protection is hindered, for instance, the females, gays (Stone et al, 2007)

Testing
It is crucial for employees to get tested for the job, for instance an organization may undertake a personality test to hire, and this ensures that discrimination avoidance takes place, and the population is non-exclusion. Further, it is necessary to include a reasonable accommodation such as interpreter as long as it does not strain the organization financially it is needs granting.

It is also very crucial to determine the type of test offering and how it might leave out a certain group of people such as the non-English speakers (Stone et al, 2007).

Promotion and pay
In a multicultural and diverse situation, it is crucial for an organization to develop policies that are related to pay as well as promotions as such policies are key to fairness. Over the years, there has been a wide publication that women make 77 percent of what men earn for a similar position in an organization and the reasons for such difference in pay are

Some hours worked- There is a belief that women due to the family responsibility such as child-care as well as expectation housework work fewer hours than men (Stone et al, 2007).
Choice of occupation- Women tend to choose careers that pay much less as they are more concerned about balancing family and career (Stone et al, 2007).
Stereotypes- The concept of male bias is another possible contributor to the large difference in pay between men and women where most men are perceived more competent in certain types of jobs than women.
Maternity and family leave- In the workplace the women leaving the workplace for a period short or long affect the perception of promotion (Stone et al, 2007).
Salary and Negotiation- Previous research indicates that men are more likely to negotiate salary than women and a possible reason for the difference in pay between them (Stone et al, 2007).
Managers need awareness of the difference between the pay of men and women when hiring and promoting. At times, it requires a set of the payment schedule for all employees regardless of their gender and promoted employees. Further an organization can introduce mentor-mentee relationships where informal mentorship programs can take effect in the organization (Stone et al, 2007).

Affirmative Action
Affirmative action is government initiated, regulated as well as legislated and is distinctly different from multiculturalism and diversity as diversity is voluntary although government agencies may pressure organizations in certain circumstances to diversify their workforce. Affirmative action is driven legally, focused on the problems at hand, integrated and very proactive. It means using individual group’s identity as a standard for selection decisions (Stone et al, 2007).

Diversity training, as well as diversity programs, are crucial need not get basis from historical workplace where there were inequalities between men and women as well as with majority of the minority programs. Such focus mostly leads to a condescending atmosphere. However, it is crucial for affirmative action and diversity to take separate ways regardless of diversity having some antecedents in affirmative action (Stone et al, 2007).

Training
It is crucial for an organization to help employees buy-in and entails enabling staff as well as managers understand d the value of a diverse workforce and the management of diversity. Such training aims at bullying reduction, harassment cases and the increase in inclusion in activities for people with language, culture as well as disability needs. The training offered includes induction, but is also ongoing and very organic, adapting over time as new employees with different diversity join the organization (Stone et al, 2007).

Retention
It is crucial for the organization to realize that employees exiting a company have nothing to lose, and it is easy for them to give openly information regarding the organization’s activities. It was thus crucial to ensure diversity policies introduced in the organization create minimum resistance and thus ensure the reduction in the level of turnover (Stone et al, 2007).