Genesis to Revelation

When the first mobile phone was invented in 1973 by Motorola, the mobile phone’s primary purpose was making calls. The primary purpose for which mobile phones were invented is still making phone calls even after the decades. However, the modern mobile phone can do more than just communicating with the next person. IPhone, from Apple Company, set the trend as early as 2007. Nine years later into 2016 and there are no signs that mobile phone innovations will end or slow down. The mobile phones have been developing decades drastically after invention. The mobile phones, popularly known as magical portable technology boxes, are increasingly becoming one of the most important interpersonal communication tools. Furthermore, their importance will only increase as time goes by.

Genesis to Revelation of Mobile Phones

Most of the early mobile phones were car phones since they were not comfortably portable in a pocket or purse. However, the Motorola Company arrived on the market in 1973 and produced Motorola DynaTAC 8000x. Although it is huge by current standards, the phone was the first mobile phone because it was comfortably portable.

Motorola DynaTAC 8000x was incredibly expensive. However, it became a pop culture symbol. The phone was showing on everyone and was owned by the rich in the community. Such people were the trendsetter not afraid of trying the new Motorola DynaTAC 8000x. Therefore, they were the key to popularizing the mobile phones. However, the use of mobile phone had not spread to the general public. The mobile phones were majorly used in the world of business and sales. Although the DynaTAC is the later models were small in size and easily portable, they still had some challenges. The later models such as Nokia Mobira Talkman and the Motorola 2900 Bag Phone were bulky and luggable. However, they had a longer battery life and talked time thereby becoming popular (Brain, Tyson, & Layton, 2013).

Shift in Purpose
Early mobile phones were primarily for talking. Features such as voicemail were gradually added. However, the primary purpose remained as talking. Ultimately, mobile phone manufacturers realized that other technologies could be integrated into the phones thereby expanding their features. Early smart phones enable users to access their emails as well as use the phone as a pager, fax machine, and address book among many others. Recent developments have seen the purpose of mobile phones shift from being a verbal communication tool to a multimedia tool thus the adoption of the name mobile device. Currently, people use their mobile phones more for web surfing, email checking, photo snapping, and updating social media status than calling (Goggin, 2012).

Modern mobile phones are slowly replacing other devices like the cameras and video cameras. On their introduction on the phones, the cameras produced low-quality images, and it was not considered a main feature. However, today the shift is changing very first where mobile phone owners do not bother to carry their cameras anymore. They just use their mobile phones. The modern day smartphone such as iPhone from Apple has changed most of the things consumers expect from their phones.

Change in Mobile Phones Shape

As much as the mobile phone technology has changed, the physical appearance has also gone through an evolution of changes. The initial car phones and bag phones were as heavy and large as today’s computers. The mobile phones have gone through the same evolution as computers in reducing their size. However, this evolution has been necessitated by the consumers’ demands for smaller and sleeker mobile phones (Agar, 2013).

In recent years, mobile phone designs have started to become large and simple. This has made room for a large screen and fewer buttons. The most desirable aspect of mobile phones from the consumers is a large, high-definition, and clear screen for maximal web viewing. Additionally, the mobile phones have taken the keyboard away and replaced it with a touchscreen keyboard that only pops out when needed as shown and indicated in figure four.

The paper had highlighted how mobile phone had changed and developed drastically since when its manufacturing started. However, seeing this trend, it is not the end. It is as though almost anything a mobile phone consumer can imagine is possible in the future. The convergence of the technological gadgets into a single mobile device will not stop to advance. Additionally, there are anticipations that most of the mobile phone hardware and software will be moved to the cloud where the final product will be a composition of input and display only. Within another decade, the regular mobile phones may disappear completely. Smartphones may never be called smart again, and the term might be dropped altogether just the way people dropped the term color TV.

Risk assessment

Risk assessment involves arriving at an estimate of the likelihood of future acts. Risk assessment is important throughout the adjudication process. It is often carried out for dispositional purposes and in the determination of various actions. In various situations decisions are often predicated, partially, on the basis of risk assessment outcomes. Thus, the accurate assessment of future risk is important to clinicians and policymakers. Recidivism rates for sex offenders vary considerably depending on various factors. The variables include the types of victims that the individual targets, previous offenses and conviction. The ability to make determination about risk is often performed through assessment of various individual factors. Clinical judgment is important part of risk assessment. However, assessment rooted in empirical foundations based on idiosyncratic experience is significantly important. These assessments are important as they illicit information on offender’s risk of re-offending. These factors include sexual arousal to minors, past criminal history, past sexual offenses, victims, absence of age-appropriate relationships and physiological factors. Given the importance of assessments, numerous risk factors have been studied to determine how they predict re-offense. The paper will discuss a case based on estimates of the likelihood that an offender will revert to criminal sexual behavior after intervention for a prior criminal act.

Being a probation officer with a specialized caseload of sexual offenders, I would choose the first case. The case involves a 50-year-old repeat offender who began talking openly about his sexual attraction to a particular boy. The choice is based on the risk assessment factors that predict the probability that a sex offender will recidivate. The presence of arousal patterns or deviant sexual interests can be identified in this case. The individual has a preference for deviant stimuli for children (Vitacco et al., 2009). The repeat child molester has talked openly about his sexual attraction to a particular boy. Evidently, the offender prefers sexual relations with children over sexual relationships with age-appropriate partners. Because the type of interests or preferences is so strong, it can be a significant driving force behind propensity to re-offend. Research suggests a strong link between sexual deviance and sexual recidivism (Hawes & Boccaccini, 2013).

The understanding of sexual deviance among offenders is quite clear. Sexual offenders are resistant to treatment. However, the combinations of different features pose a great risk of recidivism. The potential risk of recidivism rates of sex offenders informs the treatment or interventions necessary. The risk levels of the particular individual are high due. Additionally, child molesters tend to have high rates of repeat offenses due to the chronic nature of their pathology (Vitacco et al., 2009). Recidivistic sexual offenders are expected to hold deviant behavior that eases the commission of repeat offense. The open confession by the individual, in this case, provides a fertile ground for maintenance of deviant sexual behavior. The sexual interactions with sexual victims in sexual offending are often viewed as problematic. In this case, the victim is incapable of mutuality given that he targets children (Efta & Freeman, 2004).

Prior offenses and other general criminology factors are important predictors of potential to re-offend. An individual who has previously engaged in sexually violent conduct is more likely to re-offend. Repeat offenses and reconviction for new sex offense are often considered to be important predictors of recidivism. The individual in this case had previously engaged in child molestation. Criminal history variables are often used to predict sexual recidivism. The idea is that past criminal history is a strong predictor of future behavior. Prior convictions for sexual violence are a predictor of future sexual crimes. Literature on predictors of sexual offending address issues of previous convictions. However, the prediction of recidivism amongst sexual offenders can be complex (Langevin et al., 2004).As a group, persons with previous convictions for sex crimes have higher rates of sexual recidivism compared to those without a previous sex crime conviction. Individual who molest children outside of the family record higher rates recidivism over time. The overall recidivism rate for sex offenders is considered to be lower than that of other criminal groups. However, sex offenders are also involved in arrest or conviction for other non–sex crimes as well as new sex offenses (Vitacco et al., 2009).

The type of victims selected by sexual offenders is an important indicator of recidivism. Research suggests that individuals who offended against exclusively against male children or against a wide range of types of victim have higher risk of reoffending. Accordingly, sexual preference for children, particularly male children is strong predictors of sexual recidivism (Christiansen & Vincent, 2013). The risk of repeat offense is higher for those sexual offenses committed against unrelated children. Individuals with prior sexual abuse against children outside their family pose a greater risk for further sexual molestation. Many offenders convicted of abusing children outside the family often have previous convictions for a sexual offences compared to individuals who abused children within the family (Christiansen & Vincent, 2013).

Extra-familial sexual offenders are more likely to have served prior sentence for the same crime. However, such findings should be weighed against the likelihood that extra-familial abuse is more likely to be reported and detected. The reason being that seriousness of the offence differs as incest is considered to be less life-threatening compared to random sexual abuse. Random sexual abusers of children commit impetuous, impulsive and primarily violent acts without control or consideration. They often have prior records of delinquency and sexual abuse features in their backgrounds. They have adult criminal records and have previously been convicted several times or have one prior conviction for sexual offences. The individual in this case is Extra-familial child molesters with a degree of sexual preoccupation with children. These factors predict sexual recidivism as most individuals who commit repeat sexual offences have similar characteristics. These are a factor in increased risk of recidivism amongst child molesters (Knighton et al., 2014).

The characteristics of the sexual offender are more similar to repeat sexual offenders who have previously committed a sexual offence. For repeat sexual offenders, the characteristics indicate an increase in the likelihood of future offending. Probably the most important predictors for the individual are prior offenses, sexual deviance and choice of victims. Additionally, the self confessed attraction is also a predictor of intentions to commit further sexual offenses. In the case, the individual has a history of similar types of offences. This also predicts a higher rate of offending. The relevance of the individuals’ previous offence history is repeated throughout literature. While most offenders do not necessarily specialize, those who commit a sexual offence in the past are more likely to do so again. For this individual, sexual deviancy was often a significant indicator of risk. Compared to the offender in the second case, multiple victims and related victims consistently indicate higher risk. Additionally, the individual has been convicted of sexual offense on more occasions compared to the offender in the second case.

An attempt to understand why recidivism occurs is constructive in developing intervention measures. The case shows a number of consistent patterns that provide useful indicators of risk. The individual in this case is Extra-familial child molesters with a degree of sexual preoccupation with children. The type of victims selected by sexual offenders is an important indicator of recidivism. Often, the individuals who offend exclusively against male children have a higher risk of reoffending. The relevance of the individuals’ previous offense history is repeated throughout literature. Repeat offenses and reconviction for a new sex offense are often considered to be important predictors of recidivism. The individual in this case had previously engaged in child molestation. Criminal history variables are often used to predict sexual recidivism. The idea is that past criminal history is a strong predictor of future behavior. For this individual, sexual deviancy was often a significant indicator of risk. Recidivistic sexual offenders have a deviant schema that eases the commission of repeat offense. The open confession by the individual, in this case, provides a fertile ground for maintenance of deviant sexual behavior. In this case, the potential victim, a young male is incapable of mutuality. Additionally, the self-confessed attraction is also a predictor of intentions to commit further sexual offenses. The individual openly confesses of his attraction towards a potential victim. The second case lacks significant indicators of repeat sexual offense in future.

Motivation Form letter

Dismissal from program and request to continue the program
Due to insufficient academic performance (e.g. more resits than allowed)

Due to lack of academic progress (e.g. participant does not fulfill the degree requirements within the program duration or within five (5) academic years)

Due to failure of the performance segment (Master Thesis or Final Project)

Academic Misconduct (i.e. plagiarism, exam fraud, forgery and academic outsourcing)

Request for transfer of credits or exemptions (waivers)

Request to resume the (Master) study

Receiving a certificate or degree

Request for Extension / Deferral of:

(Master) study


Master Thesis or Final Project

Other, please specify: ………………………………………………………………………….

(Please submit all related supporting documents. Withholding information could have negative consequences for the final decision taken by the MSM Examination Board)

Examination Script Assignment Script

Examination Questions Assignment Description

Examination Model Answers Grade Objection Form

Case(s) used during Examination/Assignment Overall Grade Transcript

Master Thesis or Final Project Ephorus Report
Thesis or Project Evaluation Form BHAP

Reporting Academic Misconduct Form
Verification documents e.g. doctor’s certificate for personal distress

Other, namely: …………………………………………………………………………………

Motivation for personal distress (If applicable)

(Reasons beyond the control of the participant, such as health issues, deceased family etc.)

My purpose of completing my thesis is so that I can get a chance to advance my studies and also have an opportunity of moving to the next level in my career. At the moment, in the job I am working, I tend not to earn sufficient income that will help cater for my needs. I am looking forward to work in a higher position that will provide me with the chance of earning a good amount of money. In doing this, I will be able to help my husband as I am planning to go back to England. Since my husband lives in England, my plan is that when I decide to go back to England, I will have earned enough money from my job that I will use and assist my husband in buying a house as we are planning to start a life there. My husband’s salary is not enough to cater for all expenses, which includes buying a house. As we all know, life in England tend to be very expensive and to own a house; there is a lot of money that is needed so as to purchase a good house. In most places in England, houses tend to cost an awful lot, and the wages have not been able to keep pace with inflation or raised the same as house prices. I am 47 years old, and I do not have children yet because my salary and that of my husband is not enough to cater for the needs that come with having a family. Although I am planning on having babies very soon, I want them to be raised in England, and I want to ensure that we have our house before bringing any life to this world. Therefore, my plan is to complete my MBA and use it so as to get a better job that will help me earn a good salary and be able to live a decent life together with my husband and our children. I want to have my children because there is no more time to wait as I will be reaching 50 very soon and my husband is already at his 50s. I believe that completing my MBA will have a significant impact on my life and because of this; I have committed all my time and effort to ensuring that I perform well in my studies.

Motivated Reaction/ Request

(Please clearly motivate and be as precise as possible.

Information or supporting documents withheld could have negative consequences for the final decision taken by the MSM Examination Board)

When writing my thesis, I made sure that I observed all the instructions provided by my supervisor. At first, I wrote the project proposal describing the background of research, the aims, and the planned experiments. I made sure that I observed all the rules and regulations when writing a thesis. One important factor that I understood was the issue of plagiarism. Plagiarism tends to be a serious academic offense, and the school does have a strict rule regarding plagiarism. There are certain consequences for those who do not observe this rule as it can result in the immediate expulsion from the MBA program. So as to ensure that my thesis was up to standard, I considered submitting the thesis in two software so as to check for plagiarism. The software that I used was When I first checked for plagiarism, I realized that the paper had a high percentage of more than 25%. Therefore, I put effort to reduce the plagiarism rate to as low as 2% and finally got the result between 2% and 15%. When writing the thesis, my plan was to make sure that the work was original and no part of the thesis was copied from another source or students work except in areas where due acknowledgment was made. In addition to following the rules regarding plagiarism, I also made sure that I followed the requirements for working with human participants. Before doing the research, I made sure that I obtained ethical approval before starting my project. I ensured confidentiality of the participants, informed consent, and none of the participants were forced to participate in the study. By following all the guidelines and rules set when conducting a study involving human participants, I am confident that I did not violate any of the rules when doing my thesis. Before doing my thesis, I ensured that I understood all the policies and regulations involved and I believe that I did not violate any of the set rules.